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Asunto:NoticiasdelCeHu 1229/03 - Geography of Uzbekistan
Fecha:Domingo, 30 de Noviembre, 2003  02:43:41 (-0300)
Autor:Humboldt <humboldt @............ar>

En blanco

NCeHu 1229/03
 
GEOGRAPHY OF UZBEKISTAN
 
Introduction    
 
Background:
 
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, a nonconvertible currency, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Location:
 
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:
 
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:
 
Asia
Area:
  
total: 447,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
 
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
 
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
 
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:
 
none (doubly landlocked)
Climate:
 
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain:
 
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:
 
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
 
arable land: 10.8%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 88.29% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
 
42,810 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
 
NA
Environment - current issues:
 
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
 
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
   People    
 
Population:
  
25,981,647 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 34.7% (male 4,594,721; female 4,431,653)
15-64 years: 60.5% (male 7,781,739; female 7,945,641)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 497,692; female 730,201) (2003 est.)
Median age:
 
total: 21.8 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 22.5 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
 
1.63% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
  
26.09 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
  
7.97 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
 
-1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
  
total: 71.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 67.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 75.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
  
total population: 64 years
male: 60.53 years
female: 67.64 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
  
3 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  
less than 740 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
 
noun: Uzbek(s)
adjective: Uzbek
Ethnic groups:
 
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Religions:
 
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages:
 
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    
 
   Economy    
 
   Communications    
 
Telephones - main lines in use:
  
1.98 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
  
130,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
 
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
 
AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
 
4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
Internet country code:
 
.uz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
 
42 (2000)
Internet users:
  
100,000 (2002)
   Transportation   
 
Railways:
  
total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2002)
Highways:
 
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Waterways:
 
1,100 km (1990)
Pipelines:
 
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
 
Termiz (Amu Darya)
Airports:
 
273 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
 
total: 27
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,523 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
 
total: 246
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 211 (2002)
   Military    
 
Military branches:
 
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal security and border troops)
Military manpower - military age:
 
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
 
males age 15-49: 6,940,031 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
 
males age 15-49: 5,635,099 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
 
males: 310,915 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  
$200 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  
2% (FY97)
   Transnational Issues    
 
Disputes - international:
 
prolonged regional drought creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; delimitation with Kazakhstan complete with demarcation underway; serious disputes with Kyrgyzstan around Uzbek enclaves mar progress on delimitation efforts; talks have begun with Tajikistan to determine and delimit border
Illicit drugs:
 
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan