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Asunto:NoticiasdelCeHu 804/03 - Geography of Malí
Fecha:Domingo, 22 de Junio, 2003  14:39:26 (-0300)
Autor:Humboldt <humboldt @............ar>

Día luminoso

NCeHu 804/03
 
 

GEOGRAPHY OF MALÍ

 


 


 

Background:
 
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. After his reelection in 1997, President Alpha KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
   Geography    
 
Location:
 
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
 
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:
 
Africa
Area:
 
total: 1.24 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
Area - comparative:
 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
 
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:
 
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
 
none (landlocked)
Climate:
 
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain:
 
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:
 
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
 
arable land: 3.77%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 96.19% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
 
1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
 
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
 
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
   People    
 
   Government
 
   Economy   
 
Economy - overview:
 
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01.
GDP:
 
purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
 
-1.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
 
purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
 
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
 
64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 76% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40% (1994) (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
 
51 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 
4.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
 
3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
 
agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
 
14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)
Budget:
 
revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Industries:
 
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
 
NA
Electricity - production:
 
462 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
 
fossil fuel: 43%
hydro: 57%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
 
429.66 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
 
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports:
 
$575 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
 
cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.)
Exports - partners:
 
Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7% (2000)
Imports:
 
$600 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
 
machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
 
Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux (2000)
Debt - external:
 
$3.3 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
 
$596.4 million (2001)
Currency:
 
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
 
XOF
Exchange rates:
 
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Fiscal year:
 
calendar year
   Communications    
 
Telephones - main lines in use:
 
45,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
 
40,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
 
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
 
AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
Radios:
 
570,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
 
1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Televisions:
 
45,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
 
.ml
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
 
13 (2001)
Internet users:
 
30,000 (2002)
   Transportation  
 
Railways:
 
total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge
note: linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes (2001)
Highways:
 
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)
Waterways:
 
1,815 km
Ports and harbors:
 
Koulikoro
Airports:
 
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
 
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
 
total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
   Military    
 
Military branches:
 
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - availability:
 
males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
 
males age 15-49: 1,358,646 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
 
$50 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
 
2% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    
 
Disputes - international:
 
none