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Asunto:[CeHuNews] 58/03 - Geography of Guinea
Fecha:Viernes, 16 de Mayo, 2003  19:44:20 (-0300)
Autor:Humboldt <humboldt @............ar>

CeHuNews 58/03

Guinea
 

 
Independent from France since 1958, Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. Lansana CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998. Unrest in Sierra Leone has spilled over into Guinea, threatening stability and creating a humanitarian emergency.

   Geography    Guinea

Location:
 
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates:
 
11 00 N, 10 00 W
Map references:
 
Africa
Area:
 
total: 245,857 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 245,857 sq km
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
 
total: 3,399 km
border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
Coastline:
 
320 km
Maritime claims:
 
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
 
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain:
 
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resources:
 
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish
Land use:
 
arable land: 3.6%
permanent crops: 2.44%
other: 93.96% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
 
950 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
 
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
 
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands

   People    Guinea

Population:
 
7,775,065 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 42.8% (male 1,660,795; female 1,669,850)
15-64 years: 54.5% (male 2,067,991; female 2,165,625)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 86,968; female 123,836) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
 
2.23% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
 
39.49 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
 
17.24 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: as a result of civil war in neighboring countries, Guinea is host to approximately 150,000 Liberian and Sierra Leonean refugees (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
 
127.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 46.28 years
female: 48.82 years (2002 est.)
male: 43.81 years
Total fertility rate:
 
5.32 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
1.54% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
55,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
5,600 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
 
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groups:
 
Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%
Religions:
 
Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
Languages:
 
French (official), each ethnic group has its own language
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.9%
male: 49.9%
female: 21.9% (1995 est.)

   Government    Guinea

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
Government type:
 
republic
Capital:
 
Conakry
Administrative divisions:
 
33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
Independence:
 
2 October 1958 (from France)
National holiday:
 
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitution:
 
23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system:
 
based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
 
chief of state: President Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 April 1984, elected president 19 December 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lamine SIDIME (since 8 March 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 14 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003); the prime minister is appointed by the president
election results: Lansana CONTE reelected president; percent of vote - Lansana CONTE (PUP) 56.1%, Mamadou Boye BA (UNR-PRP) 24.6%, Alpha CONDE (RPG) 16.6%,
Legislative branch:
 
unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 30 June 2002; next to be held NA 2007
election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 61.6%, UPR 26.6%, other 11.8%; seats by party - PUP 85, UPR 20, other 9
Judicial branch:
 
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
Political parties and leaders:
 
Democratic Party of Guinea or PDG-AST [Marcel CROS]; Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally or PDG-RDA [El Hadj Ismael Mohamed Gassim GUSHEIN]; National Union for Progress or UNP [Paul Louis FABER]; Party for Renewal and Progress or PRP; Party for Unity and Progress or PUP [Lansana CONTE] - the governing party; People's Party of Guinea or PPG [Pascal TOLNO]; Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR; note - Party for Renewal and Progress or PRP and Union for the New Republic or UNR merged into UPR [Siradiou DIALLO]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union for the New Republic or UNR [Mamadou Boye BA]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
 
NA
International organization participation:
 
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
 
chief of mission: Ambassador Rafiou Alpha Oumar BARRY
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688
telephone: [1] (202) 483-9420
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
 
chief of mission: Ambassador Barrie R. WALKLEY
embassy: Rue Ka 038, Conakry
mailing address: B. P. 603, Conakry
telephone: [224] 41 15 20, 41 15 21, 41 15 23
FAX: [224] 41 15 22
Flag description:
 
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

   Economy    Guinea
 

Economy - overview:
 
Guinea possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources, yet remains an underdeveloped nation. The country possesses over 30% of the world's bauxite reserves and is the second largest bauxite producer. The mining sector accounted for about 75% of exports in 1999. Long-run improvements in government fiscal arrangements, literacy, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to move out of poverty. The government made encouraging progress in budget management in 1997-99, and reform progress was praised in the World Bank/IMF October 2000 assessment. However, escalating fighting along the Sierra Leonean and Liberian borders has caused major economic disruptions. In addition to direct defense costs, the violence has led to a sharp decline in investor confidence. Foreign mining companies have reduced expatriate staff, while panic buying has created food shortages and inflation in local markets. Multilateral aid - including Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief - and single digit inflation should permit 5% growth in 2002.
GDP:
 
purchasing power parity - $15 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
 
3.3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
 
purchasing power parity - $1,970 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
 
agriculture: 24%
industry: 38%
services: 38% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
 
40% (1994 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32% (1994) (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
 
40 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 
6% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
 
3 million (1999) (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
 
agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
 
NA%
Budget:
 
revenues: $395.7 million
expenditures: $472.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (2000 est.)
Industries:
 
bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries
Industrial production growth rate:
 
3.2% (1994) (1994)
Electricity - production:
 
770 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
 
fossil fuel: 46%
hydro: 54%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
 
716.1 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
 
rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Exports:
 
$694.5 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities:
 
bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partners:
 
Belgium, US, Ireland, Russia
Imports:
 
$555.2 million f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities:
 
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
 
France, US, Belgium, Cote d'Ivoire
Debt - external:
 
$3.6 billion (1999 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
 
$359.2 million (1998) (1998)
Currency:
 
Guinean franc (GNF)
Currency code:
 
GNF
Exchange rates:
 
Guinean francs per US dollar - 1,974.4 (December 2001), 1,950.6 (2001), 1,746.9 (2000), 1,387.4 (1999), 1,236.8 (1998), 1,095.3 (1997)
Fiscal year:
 
calendar year

   Communications    Guinea

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
37,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
 
21,567 (1998)
Telephone system:
 
general assessment: poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
 
AM 4 (one station is inactive), FM 1 (plus 7 repeaters), shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios:
 
357,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
 
6 lowpowered stations (2001)
Televisions:
 
85,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
 
.gn
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
 
4 (2001)
Internet users:
 
15,000 (2002)

   Transportation    Guinea
 

Railways:
 
total: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (includes 662 km in common carrier service from Kankan to Conakry, of which 36 km are usable and the rest are deteriorating (2000 est.)
Highways:
 
total: 30,500 km
paved: 5,033 km
unpaved: 25,467 km (1996)
Waterways:
 
1,295 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft)
Ports and harbors:
 
Boke, Conakry, Kamsar
Merchant marine:
 
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
 
15 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
 
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
 
total: 10 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 1 (2002)

   Military    Guinea
 

Military branches:
 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Republican Guard, Presidential Guard, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, National Police Force (Surete National)
Military manpower - availability:
 
males age 15-49: 1,812,131 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
 
males age 15-49: 915,028 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
 
$137.6 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
 
3.3% (FY01)

   Transnational Issues    Guinea
 

Disputes - international:

major border incursions from Revolutionary United Front combatants from Sierra Leone, dissident Guinean forces, Liberian Army, and mercenaries between September 2000 and March 2001 killed over 1,500 Guinean civilians and military personnel; the borders remain mostly sealed
Fuente: www.cia.gov