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Asunto:[CeHuNews] 260/03 - Republic of Tadjikistan
Fecha:Miercoles, 5 de Noviembre, 2003  18:10:34 (-0300)
Autor:Humboldt <humboldt>

CeHuNews 260/03
Republic of Tadjikistan

I. Introduction

Tajikistan is one of the first member countries of the INOGATE Programme.

Officially it joined the INOGATE Programme on 22 July 1999 during the Kiev INOGATE Summit when the Prime Minister of Tadjik Republic Mr. Iakhio Azimov signed the Umbrella Agreement.

II. Background

Geography and Topology:
Republic of Tadjikistan is located in Central Asia, west of China.

Total area: 143,100 sq km; Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km.

Capital: Dushanbe

Population: 6,719,567, of which Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%.

Economy: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 80% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced strong economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, and the external debt burden.

GDP composition by sector:
Agriculture 19%
Industry 25%
Services 56%

Main industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers.

Tajikistan's GDP and Inflation, 1995-2001
  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
GDP* (USD bln.) 2.0 1.0 1.1 1.99 n/a n/a 1.0
GDP Growth Rate** (%) -12.5 -16.7 2.2 -4.4 3.7 5.1 9.5
Inflation (%) n/a n/a n/a 43 22 33 13.5
* in 1999 prices
** compared to previous years
Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce; CIA World Factbook; DOE/EIA

III. Oil

Exploration and Reserves
Tajikistan has proven reserves of 12 million barrels of oil, most of which are located in the northern part of the country in the Leninobod Soghd Region. The national oil company is Tajikneftegaz, which handles oil exploration, drilling, and production.

Production and Consumption
In 2001, Tajik oil production was only 350 barrels per day (b/d). There has been a long period of production decline since Tajikistan produced 1,311 b/d in 1992. This decrease has been attributed to the 1992-1997 civil war, economic troubles, and lack of investment in the oil infrastructure.

Tajikistan consumed approximately 29,000 bbl/d of petroleum products in 2001, of which nearly 100% is imported. Tajikistan consumes 29,000 b/d of oil products, almost all of which are imported. The main source is Uzbekistan, which provides 70% of Tajikistan's oil product imports. An historical summary of petroleum production and consumption in Tajikistan is shown in Table below:

Petroleum Production and Consumption in Tajikistan,
1992-2001 (in thousand b/d)
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Production (total)* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Production (Crude Oil only) 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Consumption 20 17 7 10 27 27 28 29 29 29
* includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, other liquids, and refinery processing gain
Source: DOE/EIA

In July 2001, Tajikistan brought its first small oil refinery online at Konibodom. The refinery has a capacity of 400 b/d, and produces gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, and fuel oil. The production is far too small for the country's needs, however; Tajikistan still imports almost all its oil as refined petroleum products.

IV. Natural Gas

Exploration and Reserves
Tajikistan has 200 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas reserves, comprised of several fields. In 2000, Tajikistan began operations in the Khoja Sartez field in the southern Khatlon Region, and has also increased its activity in the Qizil Tumshuq deposit in the Kolkhozobod District of the southern Khatlon Region. Tajikistan has also tried to increase its own gas production, in 2000, by exploratory drilling in the Khatlon region. Apparently, some of the drilling has been successful enough to interest China in future drilling activities.

Production and Consumption
The total natural gas production for Tajikistan in 2000 was 1.4 Bcf. With its small domestic production, Tajikistan must rely on imports for 95% of the natural gas it consumes. An historical summary of natural gas production and consumption in Tajikistan is shown in Table.

Dry Natural Gas Production and Consumption in Tajikistan,
1992-2000 (in billion cubic feet)
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Production 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
Consumption 67 49 57 29 43 40 40 41 44
Note: "dry" gas means gas with condensates removed
Source: DOE/EIA

Tajikistan has had continuing problems in paying for the gas it imports. There is an intergovernmental agreement with Uzbekistan for a fixed annual quantity, but consumption has been running ahead of schedule. An additional problem is that only 18% of the gas consumed in 2001 was paid for by users. As a result of these issues, Tajikistan has had to cut off nonpaying customers and negotiate with suppliers for more gas.

Natural Gas Pipelines
There are natural gas pipelines from Uzbekistan to Dushanbe, and under a barter deal with Uzbekistan, gas is exported from Uzbekistan to Tajikistan in exchange for transit across Tajikistan for a rail transport corridor and a natural gas pipeline.

Energy Supply Indicators, Central Asia
Country Proven Crude Oil Reserves, 1/1/02E (Million Barrels) Natural Gas Reserves, 1/1/02E (Trillion Cubic Feet) Petroleum Production, 2001E (Thousand Barrels Per Day) Natural Gas Production, 2000E (Billion Cubic Feet) Crude Oil Refining Capacity, 1/1/02E (Thousand Barrels Per Day)
Kazakhstan 5,417 65 811 314.3 427
Kyrgyzstan 40 0.2 2.1 0.5 10
Tajikistan 12 0.2 0.4 1.4 0.4
Turkmenistan 546 101 159 1,642 237
Uzbekistan 594 66.2 137 1,992 222
Total 6,609 232.6 1,109.5 3,950.2 896.4
Source: Energy Information Administration  

V. Foreign Investments

Tajikistan is encouraging foreign investment. The IMF has assisted Tajikistan in economic reform and privatization. Privatization programs in Tajikistan have made slow progress. At present 11% of the medium and large enterprises have been privatized. The private sector share of the GDP is 20-30%. During the 1995-96 period, Tajikistan adopted laws on credit insurance, money circulation, the national budget, copyrights, and small business. With the export and import operation in the Republic of Tajikistan are engaged 749 entities of the foreign economic activity officially registered in the Ministry of economy and the foreign economic relations including 515 collective farms and state farms.

The trade economic partners of Tajikistan are 71 countries of the world, from them 10 countries of CIS. Tajikistan's exports in 2001 were estimated to be $640 million. The main exports were aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, and textiles. Most exports went to Uzbekistan, Liechtenstein, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Tajikistan's imports in 2001 were $700 million. The main imports were electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery, equipment, and foodstuffs. Most imports came from the Netherlands, Uzbekistan, Switzerland, and Russia.

VI. Who's Who

Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members:
(Last Updated: 29.01.2003)

President Emomali Rahmonov
Chmn., National Assembly (upper house) Makhmadsaid Ubaydulloyev
Chmn., Assembly of Representatives (lower house) Sadullo Khayrulloyev
Prime Minister Oqil Oqilov
First Dep. Prime Min. Hajji Akbar Turajonzoda
Dep. Prime Min. Kozidavlat Koimdodov
Dep. Prime Min. Nigina Sharopova
Dep. Prime Min. Zokir Vazirov
Dep. Prime Min. Maj. Gen. Saidamir Zuhurov
Min. of Economy & Trade Hakim Soliyev
Min. of Energy Abdullo Yorov
Min. of Foreign Affairs Talbak Nazarov
Chmn., State Committee for Oil & Gas Salamsho Muhabbatov

VII. Links

Information on the Republic of Tajikistan -
Information and Analitycal Centre of EuroAsia -
The President of the Republic of Tajikistan -
The Constitution -
State Property Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan -
Internews Tajikistan -
Tajik service -
Asia Plus Information Agency -
News of Tajikistan -  

VIII. Bibliography

Fossil Energy International  
CIA World Fact Book 2002  
The World Bank Group  
US Energy Information Administration  
Information Agency on CIS countries (
The Central Intelligence Agency (
Tajikistan Internet Information Agency (