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Asunto:[CeHuNews] 219/03 - Geography of Niger
Fecha:Miercoles, 6 de Agosto, 2003  10:29:22 (-0300)
Autor:humboldt <humboldt>

CeHuNews 219/03


Not until 1993, 35 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its
first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg
insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of
a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by
December 1999.  
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria  
Geographic coordinates:   
16 00 N, 8 00 E  
Map references:   
total: 1.267 million sq km 
water: 300 sq km 
land: 1,266,700 sq km  
Area - comparative:   
slightly less than twice the size of Texas  
Land boundaries:   
total: 5,697 km 
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175
km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km  
0 km (landlocked)  
Maritime claims:   
none (landlocked)  
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south  
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south;
hills in north  
Elevation extremes:   
lowest point: Niger River 200 m 
highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m  
Natural resources:   
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum  
Land use:   
arable land: 3.94% 
permanent crops: 0% 
other: 96.06% (1998 est.)  
Irrigated land:   
660 sq km (1998 est.)  
Natural hazards:   
recurring droughts  
Environment - current issues:   
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations
(such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of
poaching and habitat destruction  
Environment - international agreements:   
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands 
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea  
Geography - note:   
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is
desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited
People    Population:   
10,639,744 (July 2002 est.)  
Age structure:   
0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,594,932; female 2,503,867) 
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,594,307; female 2,706,164) 
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 125,898; female 114,576) (2002 est.)  
Population growth rate:   
2.7% (2002 est.)  
Birth rate:   
49.95 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)  
Death rate:   
22.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)  
Net migration rate:   
-0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)  
Sex ratio:   
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 
65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female 
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)  
Infant mortality rate:   
122.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)  
Life expectancy at birth:   
total population: 41.91 years 
female: 41.77 years (2002 est.) 
male: 42.04 years  
Total fertility rate:   
7 children born/woman (2002 est.)  
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:   
4% (2001 est.)  
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:   
HIV/AIDS - deaths:   
17,700 (2002est.)  
noun: Nigerien(s) 
adjective: Nigerien  
Ethnic groups:   
Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab,
Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates  
Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian  
French (official), Hausa, Djerma  
definition: age 15 and over can read and write 
total population: 15.3% 
male: 21.2% 
female: 9.4% (2002)  
Country name:   
conventional long form: Republic of Niger 
conventional short form: Niger 
local short form: Niger 
local long form: Republique du Niger  
Government type:   
Administrative divisions:   
7 departments (departements, singular - departement) and 1 capital district*
(capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi,
3 August 1960 (from France)  
National holiday:   
Republic Day, 18 December (1958)  
the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May
1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999  
Legal system:   
based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction  
18 years of age; universal  
Executive branch:   
chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the
president is both chief of state and head of government 
head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note -
the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama
AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some
executive responsibilities with the president 
cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president 
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24
November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the
election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote - Mamadou
TANDJA 59.9%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40.1%  
Legislative branch:   
unicameral National Assembly (83 seats, members elected by popular vote for
five-year terms) 
elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) 
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD-Nassara
38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 4  
Judicial branch:   
State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel  
Political parties and leaders:   
Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic
and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement
for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA, chairman];
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman
Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and
Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Union of Democratic
Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU,
Political pressure groups and leaders:   
International organization participation:   
(regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO  
Diplomatic representation in the US:   
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA 
FAX: [1] (202)483-3169 
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227 
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008  
Diplomatic representation from the US:   
chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU 
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey 
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey 
telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64 
FAX: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46  
Flag description:   
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small
orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the
flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band  
Economy - overview:   
Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on
subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less
on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West
African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and
the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral
and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat -
for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01, the World Bank approved
a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms.
However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial
situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility
for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative.  
purchasing power parity - $8.4 billion (2001 est.)  
GDP - real growth rate:   
3.1% (2001 est.)  
GDP - per capita:   
purchasing power parity - $820 (2001 est.)  
GDP - composition by sector:   
agriculture: 41% 
industry: 17% 
services: 42% (2000)  
Population below poverty line:   
63% (1993 est.)  
Household income or consumption by percentage share:   
lowest 10%: 1% 
highest 10%: 35% (1995) (1995)  
Distribution of family income - Gini index:   
51 (1995)  
Inflation rate (consumer prices):   
4.2% (2001 est.)  
Labor force:   
70,000 receive regular wages or salaries  
Labor force - by occupation:   
agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%  
Unemployment rate:   
revenues: $320 million, including $134 million from foreign sources 
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002
uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals,
Industrial production growth rate:   
Electricity - production:   
220 million kWh (2000)  
Electricity - production by source:   
fossil fuel: 100% 
hydro: 0% 
other: 0% (2000) 
nuclear: 0%  
Electricity - consumption:   
404.6 million kWh (2000)  
Electricity - exports:   
0 kWh (2000)  
Electricity - imports:   
200 million kWh (2000)  
Agriculture - products:   
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle,
sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry  
$246 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)  
Exports - commodities:   
uranium ore 65%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions (1998 est.)  
Exports - partners:   
France 43.4%, Nigeria 35.0%, Spain 4.5%, US 3.9% (2000)  
$331 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)  
Imports - commodities:   
consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum,
Imports - partners:   
France 16.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 13.4%, US 9.6%, Nigeria 7.6% (2000)  
Debt - external:   
$1.6 billion (1999 est.)  
Economic aid - recipient:   
$341 million (1997) 
note: the IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for
Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative (1997)  
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the
Central Bank of the West African States  
Currency code:   
Exchange rates:   
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January
2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997);
note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957
XOF per euro  
Fiscal year:   
calendar year  
Telephones - main lines in use:   
20,000 (2001)  
Telephones - mobile cellular:   
6,700 (2002)  
Telephone system:   
general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and
microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger 
domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay;
domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned 
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean)  
Radio broadcast stations:   
AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)  
680,000 (1997)  
Television broadcast stations:   
3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (2002)  
125,000 (1997)  
Internet country code:   
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):   
1 (2002)  
Internet users:   
12,000 (2002)  
   Transportation    Niger  Top of Page  
0 km (2002)  
total: 10,100 km 
paved: 798 km 
unpaved: 9,302 km (1996)  
300 km 
note: the Niger River is navigable from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier
from mid-December through March  
Ports and harbors:   
26 (2001)  
Airports - with paved runways:   
total: 9 
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 
under 914 m: 1 (2002)  
Airports - with unpaved runways:   
total: 18 
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 
914 to 1,523 m: 14 
under 914 m: 2 (2002)  
Military branches:   
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Intervention and Security Force  
Military manpower - military age:   
18 years of age (2002 est.)  
Military manpower - availability:   
males age 15-49: 2,270,793 (2002 est.)  
Military manpower - fit for military service:   
males age 15-49: 1,227,994 (2002 est.)  
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:   
males: 108,993 (2002 est.)  
Military expenditures - dollar figure:   
$20.9 million (FY01)  
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:   
1.3% (FY01)  
  Transnational Issues     
Disputes - international:   
Niger and Benin have refered to the ICJ the dispute over l'Ete and 14 smaller
islands in the Niger River, which has never been delimited; the
Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint remains undemarcated; Lake Chad Basin Commission
urges signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation
treaty over lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; Libya claims about
19,400 sq km in northern Niger in a currently dormant dispute

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